What is Honey Bee Dysentery?

How Honey Bee Health Can Suffer in an Unrelenting Winter

What is Honey Bee Dysentery?

Reading Time: 4 minutes

Beekeeping is rife with confusing terminology that can baffle even experienced beekeepers. Honey bee dysentery is a perfect example.

In humans, dysentery is a contagious illness caused by bacteria that are associated with unsanitary conditions. But in honey bees, dysentery is not caused by a pathogen. Instead, it is the result of an excess amount of fecal matter in the honey bee’s gut. It’s not a disease, but simply a condition.

Honey bee dysentery is a problem that colonies encounter in winter when the outdoor temperature does not allow them to fly. Waste products accumulate inside a bee until she has no choice but to empty her intestines, regardless of where she is. Sometimes she may exit for a quick flight, but because it is too cold to go far, she defecates on or near the landing board. This accumulation may be your first sign of a problem.

A colony with dysentery is unpleasant for both the bees and the beekeeper. Even though the dysentery was not caused by a disease organism, a hive full of bee excrement leads to the unsanitary conditions. The bees try to clean up the mess and, in the process, they spread any pathogens that were carried within individual bees. In addition, the smell within a soiled hive may mask the scent of the pheromones that are vital to communication between bees.

Nosema and Dysentery

To add to the confusion, honey bee dysentery is frequently confused with Nosema disease. Nosema apis is caused by a microsporidian that produces severe diarrhea in bees. It, too, occurs mostly in the winter and is indistinguishable from dysentery. Lots of folks assume their bees have Nosema apis, when they actually do not. The only way to know if a colony has Nosema is to dissect some bees and count spores under a microscope.

In recent years, a new wrinkle in diagnosis appeared when a separate disease, Nosema ceranae, became common. Unlike Nosema apis, Nosema ceranae is a summer disease that does not cause diarrhea to accumulate in a hive. The important point to remember is that Nosema and dysentery are separate conditions that you can’t distinguish without a laboratory analysis.

No-Fly Days and Honey Bee Health

For now, let’s assume your soiled hive tests negative for Nosema. You would like to prevent this condition in the future, but how? Why do some colonies get it while others overwinter without a hitch?

Like most other animals, honey bees have an intestine that moves food from the stomach to the anus. It can stretch when necessary, which expands its capacity. In fact, a honey bee can hold 30 to 40 percent of her body weight within her intestine.

In warm weather, bees can empty their intestines while foraging. In winter, they need to go on periodic, short “cleansing” flights. Afterward, they quickly return to the hive and join the winter bee cluster to warm themselves up. But sometimes winter can be unrelenting, providing very few days warm enough to fly.

Ash in the Honey Bee Diet

As you know, food has varying amounts of indigestible matter. We humans are encouraged to eat lots of fiber, which helps keep things moving through the digestive tract. This is exactly what honey bees need to avoid in winter. When a honey bee eats excess solids, they must be stored within the bee until the next cleansing flight.

Solids in the bee diet are in the form of ash. Technically, ash is what’s left over after you completely burn a sample of food. Ash is made of inorganic materials such as calcium, sodium, and potassium.

Honey, which is the main diet of winter honey bees, has variable amounts of ash, depending on what plants produced the nectar. The difference between honey types explains why one colony may get dysentery while a neighboring colony did not—they simply collected nectar from different sources.

Honey Color Matters

Darker honey has more ash than lighter honey. In chemical analyses, darker honey consistently shows higher levels of vitamins, minerals, and other phytochemicals. In fact, all the extra stuff inside dark honey also makes it more nutritious. But in the winter months, these extras can be hard on the bees. As a result, some beekeepers remove the dark honey from their hives before winter and give them lighter honey instead. The darker honeys can be used for bee feed in the spring when the bees are flying.

When it will be used for winter feed, sugar should also be as ash-free as possible. White sugar has the lowest ash, while darker sugars such as brown sugar and organic sugar have much more. A typical sample of light amber honey has about 2.5 times as much ash as plain white granulated sugar. Because of the way it’s processed, some organic sugar has 12 times as much ash as light amber honey. The exact numbers vary with the manufacturer, but lighter is better when it comes to bee feed.

Honey Bee Dysentery
Darker honey is more apt to cause dysentery in bees.

Climate Makes all the Difference

How much attention you need to pay to winter feed depends on your climate. Where I live, it is not unusual to get a 50+ degree day in the middle of winter. On a day like that, the bees will make quick flights. If you have snow on the ground, you can easily see how important those flights are.

The fewer flying days you have, the more important the quality of winter feed becomes. For a beginner, this will be hard to determine, but you may be able to find historical records of daytime temperatures on the Internet. If you have a good flying day once every four to six weeks, you probably don’t have to worry about dark honey in your hives. If you won’t have a flying day for three or four months, a little planning may prevent a problem with dysentery.

A Note About Water

You will sometimes hear that excess water causes honey bee dysentery, but water by itself will not cause dysentery. However, too much water in the early spring may push bees over their limit. If the bees haven’t been outside, and if they are approaching the maximum amount of waste they can hold, the gut material may absorb part of the water, exceeding the bee’s ability to carry it. That is one reason why many beekeepers prefer to feed sugar cakes or bee fondant rather than syrup in the early spring.

You can help your bees avoid dysentery by adding upper entrances, removing dark honey, and carefully selecting winter feed. Just remember to tailor your management to suit local conditions.

Have you had a problem with honey bee dysentery in your area? If so, how did you handle it?

One thought on “What is Honey Bee Dysentery?”
  1. Split my hive early spring and fed the smaller one syrup and the larger one fondant. Smaller one has major dysentery. Larger one none!. Smaller one has nurse bees and brood mainly and a few queen cells…larger one is being requeened with a caged queen. I’m wondering if the smaller one is suffering with the stress of having no queen, only youngsters a watery syrup!! Any ideas?

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

[gravityform id="3" title="false" description="false" ajax="true"]
<script type="text/javascript">if(!gform){document.addEventListener("gform_main_scripts_loaded",function(){gform.scriptsLoaded=!0}),window.addEventListener("DOMContentLoaded",function(){gform.domLoaded=!0});var gform={domLoaded:!1,scriptsLoaded:!1,initializeOnLoaded:function(o){gform.domLoaded&&gform.scriptsLoaded?o():!gform.domLoaded&&gform.scriptsLoaded?window.addEventListener("DOMContentLoaded",o):document.addEventListener("gform_main_scripts_loaded",o)},hooks:{action:{},filter:{}},addAction:function(o,n,r,t){gform.addHook("action",o,n,r,t)},addFilter:function(o,n,r,t){gform.addHook("filter",o,n,r,t)},doAction:function(o){gform.doHook("action",o,arguments)},applyFilters:function(o){return gform.doHook("filter",o,arguments)},removeAction:function(o,n){gform.removeHook("action",o,n)},removeFilter:function(o,n,r){gform.removeHook("filter",o,n,r)},addHook:function(o,n,r,t,i){null==gform.hooks[o][n]&&(gform.hooks[o][n]=[]);var e=gform.hooks[o][n];null==i&&(i=n+"_"+e.length),null==t&&(t=10),gform.hooks[o][n].push({tag:i,callable:r,priority:t})},doHook:function(o,n,r){if(r=Array.prototype.slice.call(r,1),null!=gform.hooks[o][n]){var t,i=gform.hooks[o][n];i.sort(function(o,n){return o.priority-n.priority});for(var e=0;e<i.length;e++)"function"!=typeof(t=i[e].callable)&&(t=window[t]),"action"==o?t.apply(null,r):r[0]=t.apply(null,r)}if("filter"==o)return r[0]},removeHook:function(o,n,r,t){if(null!=gform.hooks[o][n])for(var i=gform.hooks[o][n],e=i.length-1;0<=e;e--)null!=t&&t!=i[e].tag||null!=r&&r!=i[e].priority||i.splice(e,1)}}}</script> <div class='gf_browser_safari gform_wrapper gravity-theme' id='gform_wrapper_3' style='display:none'><div id='gf_3' class='gform_anchor' tabindex='-1'></div><form method='post' enctype='multipart/form-data' target='gform_ajax_frame_3' id='gform_3' action='/health-pests/what-is-honey-bee-dysentery/#gf_3' > <div class='gform_body gform-body'><div id='gform_fields_3' class='gform_fields top_label form_sublabel_below description_below'><fieldset id="field_3_4" class="gfield field_sublabel_below field_description_above gfield_visibility_visible gsurvey-survey-field " data-field-class="gsurvey-survey-field"><legend class='gfield_label' >Where do you keep bees?</legend><div class='gfield_description' id='gfield_description_3_4'>Choose which setting best applies to you.</div><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_radio'><div class='gfield_radio' id='input_3_4'> <div class='gchoice gchoice_3_4_0'> <input class='gfield-choice-input' name='input_4' type='radio' value='gsurvey4f6fd23bc' id='choice_3_4_0' onchange='gformToggleRadioOther( this )' aria-describedby="gfield_description_3_4" /> <label for='choice_3_4_0' id='label_3_4_0'>Rural</label> </div> <div class='gchoice gchoice_3_4_1'> <input class='gfield-choice-input' name='input_4' type='radio' value='gsurvey4f19da77f' id='choice_3_4_1' onchange='gformToggleRadioOther( this )' /> <label for='choice_3_4_1' id='label_3_4_1'>Urban</label> </div> <div class='gchoice gchoice_3_4_2'> <input class='gfield-choice-input' name='input_4' type='radio' value='gsurvey4c70f5f04' id='choice_3_4_2' onchange='gformToggleRadioOther( this )' /> <label for='choice_3_4_2' id='label_3_4_2'>Suburban</label> </div> <div class='gchoice gchoice_3_4_3'> <input class='gfield-choice-input' name='input_4' type='radio' value='gsurvey4db0e3590' id='choice_3_4_3' onchange='gformToggleRadioOther( this )' /> <label for='choice_3_4_3' id='label_3_4_3'>Other</label> </div></div></div></fieldset><div id="field_3_5" class="gfield field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_visible gsurvey-survey-field " data-field-class="gsurvey-survey-field"><label class='gfield_label' for='input_3_5' >If other, please describe here.</label><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_text'><input name='input_5' id='input_3_5' type='text' value='' class='large' aria-describedby="input_3_5_desc" aria-invalid="false" /> </div></div><fieldset id="field_3_6" class="gfield field_sublabel_below field_description_above gfield_visibility_visible gsurvey-survey-field " data-field-class="gsurvey-survey-field"><legend class='gfield_label' >How long have you kept bees?</legend><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_radio'><div class='gfield_radio' id='input_3_6'> <div class='gchoice gchoice_3_6_0'> <input class='gfield-choice-input' name='input_6' type='radio' value='gsurvey6752f13b7' id='choice_3_6_0' onchange='gformToggleRadioOther( this )' /> <label for='choice_3_6_0' id='label_3_6_0'>I've never kept bees, but I'm planning on it</label> </div> <div class='gchoice gchoice_3_6_1'> <input class='gfield-choice-input' name='input_6' type='radio' value='Less than a month' id='choice_3_6_1' onchange='gformToggleRadioOther( this )' /> <label for='choice_3_6_1' id='label_3_6_1'>I used to keep bees, but I don't anymore</label> </div> <div class='gchoice gchoice_3_6_2'> <input class='gfield-choice-input' name='input_6' type='radio' value='1-6 months' id='choice_3_6_2' onchange='gformToggleRadioOther( this )' /> <label for='choice_3_6_2' id='label_3_6_2'>1-6 months</label> </div> <div class='gchoice gchoice_3_6_3'> <input class='gfield-choice-input' name='input_6' type='radio' value='1-3 years' id='choice_3_6_3' onchange='gformToggleRadioOther( this )' /> <label for='choice_3_6_3' id='label_3_6_3'>1-3 years</label> </div> <div class='gchoice gchoice_3_6_4'> <input class='gfield-choice-input' name='input_6' type='radio' value='gsurvey6b46e0a86' id='choice_3_6_4' onchange='gformToggleRadioOther( this )' /> <label for='choice_3_6_4' id='label_3_6_4'>3-5 years</label> </div> <div class='gchoice gchoice_3_6_5'> <input class='gfield-choice-input' name='input_6' type='radio' value='gsurvey6c26dc4d8' id='choice_3_6_5' onchange='gformToggleRadioOther( this )' /> <label for='choice_3_6_5' id='label_3_6_5'>5+ years</label> </div></div></div></fieldset><div id="field_3_8" class="gfield field_sublabel_below field_description_above gfield_visibility_visible gsurvey-survey-field " data-field-class="gsurvey-survey-field"><label class='gfield_label gfield_label_before_complex' >Which membership benefits interest you?</label><div class='gfield_description' id='gfield_description_3_8'>Choose which option best describes your interests.</div><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_likert'><table class='gsurvey-likert' id='input_3_8'><thead><tr><th scope='col' class='gsurvey-likert-row-label'></th><th scope='col' class='gsurvey-likert-choice-label'>Strongly agree</th><th scope='col' class='gsurvey-likert-choice-label'>Agree</th><th scope='col' class='gsurvey-likert-choice-label'>Neutral</th><th scope='col' class='gsurvey-likert-choice-label'>Disagree</th><th scope='col' class='gsurvey-likert-choice-label'>Strongly disagree</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td data-label='' class='gsurvey-likert-row-label'>Magazine Issues</td><td data-label='Strongly agree' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_8.1' type='radio' value='glikertrow24c13ca4:glikertcol8a1e6b5a1' id='choice_3_8_1_1' /></td><td data-label='Agree' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_8.1' type='radio' value='glikertrow24c13ca4:glikertcol864f3c7a9' id='choice_3_8_1_2' /></td><td data-label='Neutral' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_8.1' type='radio' value='glikertrow24c13ca4:glikertcol8958d99a0' id='choice_3_8_1_3' /></td><td data-label='Disagree' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_8.1' type='radio' value='glikertrow24c13ca4:glikertcol870612e3b' id='choice_3_8_1_4' /></td><td data-label='Strongly disagree' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_8.1' type='radio' value='glikertrow24c13ca4:glikertcol8f89dc206' id='choice_3_8_1_5' /></td></tr><tr><td data-label='' class='gsurvey-likert-row-label'>Ask the Expert</td><td data-label='Strongly agree' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_8.2' type='radio' value='glikertrow832c9236:glikertcol8a1e6b5a1' id='choice_3_8_2_1' /></td><td data-label='Agree' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_8.2' type='radio' value='glikertrow832c9236:glikertcol864f3c7a9' id='choice_3_8_2_2' /></td><td data-label='Neutral' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_8.2' type='radio' value='glikertrow832c9236:glikertcol8958d99a0' id='choice_3_8_2_3' /></td><td data-label='Disagree' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_8.2' type='radio' value='glikertrow832c9236:glikertcol870612e3b' id='choice_3_8_2_4' /></td><td data-label='Strongly disagree' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_8.2' type='radio' value='glikertrow832c9236:glikertcol8f89dc206' id='choice_3_8_2_5' /></td></tr><tr><td data-label='' class='gsurvey-likert-row-label'>Articles</td><td data-label='Strongly agree' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_8.3' type='radio' value='glikertrow5b734ec5:glikertcol8a1e6b5a1' id='choice_3_8_3_1' /></td><td data-label='Agree' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_8.3' type='radio' value='glikertrow5b734ec5:glikertcol864f3c7a9' id='choice_3_8_3_2' /></td><td data-label='Neutral' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_8.3' type='radio' value='glikertrow5b734ec5:glikertcol8958d99a0' id='choice_3_8_3_3' /></td><td data-label='Disagree' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_8.3' type='radio' value='glikertrow5b734ec5:glikertcol870612e3b' id='choice_3_8_3_4' /></td><td data-label='Strongly disagree' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_8.3' type='radio' value='glikertrow5b734ec5:glikertcol8f89dc206' id='choice_3_8_3_5' /></td></tr><tr><td data-label='' class='gsurvey-likert-row-label'>Partner Discounts</td><td data-label='Strongly agree' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_8.4' type='radio' value='glikertrowc70556e8:glikertcol8a1e6b5a1' id='choice_3_8_4_1' /></td><td data-label='Agree' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_8.4' type='radio' value='glikertrowc70556e8:glikertcol864f3c7a9' id='choice_3_8_4_2' /></td><td data-label='Neutral' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_8.4' type='radio' value='glikertrowc70556e8:glikertcol8958d99a0' id='choice_3_8_4_3' /></td><td data-label='Disagree' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_8.4' type='radio' value='glikertrowc70556e8:glikertcol870612e3b' id='choice_3_8_4_4' /></td><td data-label='Strongly disagree' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_8.4' type='radio' value='glikertrowc70556e8:glikertcol8f89dc206' id='choice_3_8_4_5' /></td></tr><tr><td data-label='' class='gsurvey-likert-row-label'>Book Discounts</td><td data-label='Strongly agree' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_8.5' type='radio' value='glikertrowb78766c3:glikertcol8a1e6b5a1' id='choice_3_8_5_1' /></td><td data-label='Agree' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_8.5' type='radio' value='glikertrowb78766c3:glikertcol864f3c7a9' id='choice_3_8_5_2' /></td><td data-label='Neutral' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_8.5' type='radio' value='glikertrowb78766c3:glikertcol8958d99a0' id='choice_3_8_5_3' /></td><td data-label='Disagree' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_8.5' type='radio' value='glikertrowb78766c3:glikertcol870612e3b' id='choice_3_8_5_4' /></td><td data-label='Strongly disagree' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_8.5' type='radio' value='glikertrowb78766c3:glikertcol8f89dc206' id='choice_3_8_5_5' /></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div id="field_3_16" class="gfield gfield--width-full field_sublabel_below field_description_above gfield_visibility_visible gsurvey-survey-field " data-field-class="gsurvey-survey-field"><label class='gfield_label gfield_label_before_complex' >Which beekeeping topics interest you?</label><div class='gfield_description' id='gfield_description_3_16'>Choose which option best describes your interests.</div><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_likert'><table class='gsurvey-likert' id='input_3_16'><thead><tr><th scope='col' class='gsurvey-likert-row-label'></th><th scope='col' class='gsurvey-likert-choice-label'>Strongly agree</th><th scope='col' class='gsurvey-likert-choice-label'>Neutral</th><th scope='col' class='gsurvey-likert-choice-label'>Disagree</th><th scope='col' class='gsurvey-likert-choice-label'>Agree</th><th scope='col' class='gsurvey-likert-choice-label'>Strongly disagree</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td data-label='' class='gsurvey-likert-row-label'>Beekeeping 101</td><td data-label='Strongly agree' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_16.1' type='radio' value='glikertrow8fd30f51:glikertcol160ec942c4' id='choice_3_16_1_1' /></td><td data-label='Neutral' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_16.1' type='radio' value='glikertrow8fd30f51:glikertcol162e78c3ed' id='choice_3_16_1_2' /></td><td data-label='Disagree' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_16.1' type='radio' value='glikertrow8fd30f51:glikertcol160f1988df' id='choice_3_16_1_3' /></td><td data-label='Agree' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_16.1' type='radio' value='glikertrow8fd30f51:glikertcol16200ec305' id='choice_3_16_1_4' /></td><td data-label='Strongly disagree' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_16.1' type='radio' value='glikertrow8fd30f51:glikertcol1678dadfcd' id='choice_3_16_1_5' /></td></tr><tr><td data-label='' class='gsurvey-likert-row-label'>Hives & Equipment</td><td data-label='Strongly agree' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_16.2' type='radio' value='glikertrow32e2e32d:glikertcol160ec942c4' id='choice_3_16_2_1' /></td><td data-label='Neutral' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_16.2' type='radio' value='glikertrow32e2e32d:glikertcol162e78c3ed' id='choice_3_16_2_2' /></td><td data-label='Disagree' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_16.2' type='radio' value='glikertrow32e2e32d:glikertcol160f1988df' id='choice_3_16_2_3' /></td><td data-label='Agree' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_16.2' type='radio' value='glikertrow32e2e32d:glikertcol16200ec305' id='choice_3_16_2_4' /></td><td data-label='Strongly disagree' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_16.2' type='radio' value='glikertrow32e2e32d:glikertcol1678dadfcd' id='choice_3_16_2_5' /></td></tr><tr><td data-label='' class='gsurvey-likert-row-label'>Heath & Pests</td><td data-label='Strongly agree' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_16.3' type='radio' value='glikertrow36e1825a:glikertcol160ec942c4' id='choice_3_16_3_1' /></td><td data-label='Neutral' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_16.3' type='radio' value='glikertrow36e1825a:glikertcol162e78c3ed' id='choice_3_16_3_2' /></td><td data-label='Disagree' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_16.3' type='radio' value='glikertrow36e1825a:glikertcol160f1988df' id='choice_3_16_3_3' /></td><td data-label='Agree' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_16.3' type='radio' value='glikertrow36e1825a:glikertcol16200ec305' id='choice_3_16_3_4' /></td><td data-label='Strongly disagree' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_16.3' type='radio' value='glikertrow36e1825a:glikertcol1678dadfcd' id='choice_3_16_3_5' /></td></tr><tr><td data-label='' class='gsurvey-likert-row-label'>Plants & Pollination</td><td data-label='Strongly agree' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_16.4' type='radio' value='glikertrow252494b1:glikertcol160ec942c4' id='choice_3_16_4_1' /></td><td data-label='Neutral' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_16.4' type='radio' value='glikertrow252494b1:glikertcol162e78c3ed' id='choice_3_16_4_2' /></td><td data-label='Disagree' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_16.4' type='radio' value='glikertrow252494b1:glikertcol160f1988df' id='choice_3_16_4_3' /></td><td data-label='Agree' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_16.4' type='radio' value='glikertrow252494b1:glikertcol16200ec305' id='choice_3_16_4_4' /></td><td data-label='Strongly disagree' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_16.4' type='radio' value='glikertrow252494b1:glikertcol1678dadfcd' id='choice_3_16_4_5' /></td></tr><tr><td data-label='' class='gsurvey-likert-row-label'>Honey & Beeswax</td><td data-label='Strongly agree' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_16.5' type='radio' value='glikertrowea37e50e:glikertcol160ec942c4' id='choice_3_16_5_1' /></td><td data-label='Neutral' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_16.5' type='radio' value='glikertrowea37e50e:glikertcol162e78c3ed' id='choice_3_16_5_2' /></td><td data-label='Disagree' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_16.5' type='radio' value='glikertrowea37e50e:glikertcol160f1988df' id='choice_3_16_5_3' /></td><td data-label='Agree' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_16.5' type='radio' value='glikertrowea37e50e:glikertcol16200ec305' id='choice_3_16_5_4' /></td><td data-label='Strongly disagree' class='gsurvey-likert-choice'><input name='input_16.5' type='radio' value='glikertrowea37e50e:glikertcol1678dadfcd' id='choice_3_16_5_5' /></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><fieldset id="field_3_9" class="gfield field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_visible gsurvey-survey-field " data-field-class="gsurvey-survey-field"><legend class='gfield_label' >Are you familiar with our other communities?</legend><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_radio'><div class='gfield_radio' id='input_3_9'> <div class='gchoice gchoice_3_9_0'> <input class='gfield-choice-input' name='input_9' type='radio' value='gsurvey9050fe9f3' id='choice_3_9_0' onchange='gformToggleRadioOther( this )' /> <label for='choice_3_9_0' id='label_3_9_0'>Yes</label> </div> <div class='gchoice gchoice_3_9_1'> <input class='gfield-choice-input' name='input_9' type='radio' value='gsurvey9567a8334' id='choice_3_9_1' onchange='gformToggleRadioOther( this )' /> <label for='choice_3_9_1' id='label_3_9_1'>No</label> </div></div></div></fieldset><fieldset id="field_3_10" class="gfield field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_visible gsurvey-survey-field " data-field-class="gsurvey-survey-field"><legend class='gfield_label gfield_label_before_complex' >If yes, select which ones.</legend><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_checkbox'><div class='gfield_checkbox' id='input_3_10'><div class='gchoice gchoice_3_10_1'> <input class='gfield-choice-input' name='input_10.1' type='checkbox' value='gsurvey1048489d09' id='choice_3_10_1' /> <label for='choice_3_10_1' id='label_3_10_1'>Countryside</label> </div><div class='gchoice gchoice_3_10_2'> <input class='gfield-choice-input' name='input_10.2' type='checkbox' value='gsurvey10167586c9' id='choice_3_10_2' /> <label for='choice_3_10_2' id='label_3_10_2'>Backyard Poultry</label> </div><div class='gchoice gchoice_3_10_3'> <input class='gfield-choice-input' name='input_10.3' type='checkbox' value='gsurvey1063bb9280' id='choice_3_10_3' /> <label for='choice_3_10_3' id='label_3_10_3'>Goat Journal/Backyard Goats</label> </div><button type="button" id="button_10_select_all" onclick="gformToggleCheckboxes( this )" data-checked="0" data-label-select="Select All" data-label-deselect="Deselect All">Select All</button></div></div></fieldset><fieldset id="field_3_11" class="gfield field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_visible gsurvey-survey-field " data-field-class="gsurvey-survey-field"><legend class='gfield_label' >How did you find out about us?</legend><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_radio'><div class='gfield_radio' id='input_3_11'> <div class='gchoice gchoice_3_11_0'> <input class='gfield-choice-input' name='input_11' type='radio' value='gsurvey113bf794d5' id='choice_3_11_0' onchange='gformToggleRadioOther( this )' /> <label for='choice_3_11_0' id='label_3_11_0'>Google</label> </div> <div class='gchoice gchoice_3_11_1'> <input class='gfield-choice-input' name='input_11' type='radio' value='gsurvey1117f0db73' id='choice_3_11_1' onchange='gformToggleRadioOther( this )' /> <label for='choice_3_11_1' id='label_3_11_1'>Facebook</label> </div> <div class='gchoice gchoice_3_11_2'> <input class='gfield-choice-input' name='input_11' type='radio' value='gsurvey11b21ada93' id='choice_3_11_2' onchange='gformToggleRadioOther( this )' /> <label for='choice_3_11_2' id='label_3_11_2'>Instagram</label> </div> <div class='gchoice gchoice_3_11_3'> <input class='gfield-choice-input' name='input_11' type='radio' value='gsurvey11da6b4911' id='choice_3_11_3' onchange='gformToggleRadioOther( this )' /> <label for='choice_3_11_3' id='label_3_11_3'>Newsletter</label> </div> <div class='gchoice gchoice_3_11_4'> <input class='gfield-choice-input' name='input_11' type='radio' value='gsurvey11cd97e366' id='choice_3_11_4' onchange='gformToggleRadioOther( this )' /> <label for='choice_3_11_4' id='label_3_11_4'>Word of Mouth</label> </div> <div class='gchoice gchoice_3_11_5'> <input class='gfield-choice-input' name='input_11' type='radio' value='gsurvey110c425d8e' id='choice_3_11_5' onchange='gformToggleRadioOther( this )' /> <label for='choice_3_11_5' id='label_3_11_5'>Countryside</label> </div> <div class='gchoice gchoice_3_11_6'> <input class='gfield-choice-input' name='input_11' type='radio' value='gsurvey112180c441' id='choice_3_11_6' onchange='gformToggleRadioOther( this )' /> <label for='choice_3_11_6' id='label_3_11_6'>Backyard Poultry</label> </div> <div class='gchoice gchoice_3_11_7'> <input class='gfield-choice-input' name='input_11' type='radio' value='gsurvey1163c4ea07' id='choice_3_11_7' onchange='gformToggleRadioOther( this )' /> <label for='choice_3_11_7' id='label_3_11_7'>Goat Journal</label> </div> <div class='gchoice gchoice_3_11_8'> <input class='gfield-choice-input' name='input_11' type='radio' value='gsurvey1173cf2733' id='choice_3_11_8' onchange='gformToggleRadioOther( this )' /> <label for='choice_3_11_8' id='label_3_11_8'>Other</label> </div></div></div></fieldset><div id="field_3_13" class="gfield field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_visible gsurvey-survey-field " data-field-class="gsurvey-survey-field"><label class='gfield_label' for='input_3_13' >If other, please tell us how you found out about us below.</label><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_text'><input name='input_13' id='input_3_13' type='text' value='' class='large' aria-describedby="input_3_13_desc" aria-invalid="false" /> </div></div><fieldset id="field_3_1" class="gfield gfield--width-full field_sublabel_below field_description_above gfield_visibility_visible gsurvey-survey-field " data-field-class="gsurvey-survey-field"><legend class='gfield_label' >What is your gender?</legend><div class='gfield_description' id='gfield_description_3_1'>Choose which selection best applies to you.</div><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_radio'><div class='gfield_radio' id='input_3_1'> <div class='gchoice gchoice_3_1_0'> <input class='gfield-choice-input' name='input_1' type='radio' value='Male' id='choice_3_1_0' onchange='gformToggleRadioOther( this )' aria-describedby="gfield_description_3_1" /> <label for='choice_3_1_0' id='label_3_1_0'>Male</label> </div> <div class='gchoice gchoice_3_1_1'> <input class='gfield-choice-input' name='input_1' type='radio' value='Female' id='choice_3_1_1' onchange='gformToggleRadioOther( this )' /> <label for='choice_3_1_1' id='label_3_1_1'>Female</label> </div> <div class='gchoice gchoice_3_1_2'> <input class='gfield-choice-input' name='input_1' type='radio' value='gsurvey10f4e8dbf' id='choice_3_1_2' onchange='gformToggleRadioOther( this )' /> <label for='choice_3_1_2' id='label_3_1_2'>Other</label> </div> <div class='gchoice gchoice_3_1_3'> <input class='gfield-choice-input' name='input_1' type='radio' value='Prefer Not to Answer' id='choice_3_1_3' onchange='gformToggleRadioOther( this )' /> <label for='choice_3_1_3' id='label_3_1_3'>Prefer Not to Answer</label> </div></div></div></fieldset><fieldset id="field_3_2" class="gfield gfield--width-full field_sublabel_below field_description_above gfield_visibility_visible gsurvey-survey-field " data-field-class="gsurvey-survey-field"><legend class='gfield_label' >What is your age range?</legend><div class='gfield_description' id='gfield_description_3_2'>Choose which selection best applies to you.</div><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_radio'><div class='gfield_radio' id='input_3_2'> <div class='gchoice gchoice_3_2_0'> <input class='gfield-choice-input' name='input_2' type='radio' value='18-24' id='choice_3_2_0' onchange='gformToggleRadioOther( this )' aria-describedby="gfield_description_3_2" /> <label for='choice_3_2_0' id='label_3_2_0'>18-24</label> </div> <div class='gchoice gchoice_3_2_1'> <input class='gfield-choice-input' name='input_2' type='radio' value='25-34' id='choice_3_2_1' onchange='gformToggleRadioOther( this )' /> <label for='choice_3_2_1' id='label_3_2_1'>25-34</label> </div> <div class='gchoice gchoice_3_2_2'> <input class='gfield-choice-input' name='input_2' type='radio' value='35-44' id='choice_3_2_2' onchange='gformToggleRadioOther( this )' /> <label for='choice_3_2_2' id='label_3_2_2'>35-44</label> </div> <div class='gchoice gchoice_3_2_3'> <input class='gfield-choice-input' name='input_2' type='radio' value='45-54' id='choice_3_2_3' onchange='gformToggleRadioOther( this )' /> <label for='choice_3_2_3' id='label_3_2_3'>45-54</label> </div> <div class='gchoice gchoice_3_2_4'> <input class='gfield-choice-input' name='input_2' type='radio' value='55-64' id='choice_3_2_4' onchange='gformToggleRadioOther( this )' /> <label for='choice_3_2_4' id='label_3_2_4'>55-64</label> </div> <div class='gchoice gchoice_3_2_5'> <input class='gfield-choice-input' name='input_2' type='radio' value='65 or Above' id='choice_3_2_5' onchange='gformToggleRadioOther( this )' /> <label for='choice_3_2_5' id='label_3_2_5'>65 or Above</label> </div> <div class='gchoice gchoice_3_2_6'> <input class='gfield-choice-input' name='input_2' type='radio' value='Prefer Not to Answer' id='choice_3_2_6' onchange='gformToggleRadioOther( this )' /> <label for='choice_3_2_6' id='label_3_2_6'>Prefer Not to Answer</label> </div></div></div></fieldset><fieldset id="field_3_19" class="gfield gfield--width-full field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_visible gsurvey-survey-field " data-field-class="gsurvey-survey-field"><legend class='gfield_label' >Would you like to join our free Backyard Beekeeping newsletter?</legend><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_radio'><div class='gfield_radio' id='input_3_19'> <div class='gchoice gchoice_3_19_0'> <input class='gfield-choice-input' name='input_19' type='radio' value='gsurvey19eb85fa0b' id='choice_3_19_0' onchange='gformToggleRadioOther( this )' /> <label for='choice_3_19_0' id='label_3_19_0'>Yes</label> </div> <div class='gchoice gchoice_3_19_1'> <input class='gfield-choice-input' name='input_19' type='radio' value='gsurvey197d0ee5ac' id='choice_3_19_1' onchange='gformToggleRadioOther( this )' /> <label for='choice_3_19_1' id='label_3_19_1'>No</label> </div></div></div></fieldset><div id="field_3_20" class="gfield gfield--width-full gfield_contains_required field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_visible gsurvey-survey-field " data-field-class="gsurvey-survey-field"><label class='gfield_label' for='input_3_20' >If yes, please provide your email here.<span class="gfield_required"><span class="gfield_required gfield_required_text">(Required)</span></span></label><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_text'><input name='input_20' id='input_3_20' type='text' value='' class='large' aria-describedby="input_3_20_desc" aria-required="true" aria-invalid="false" /> </div></div><div id="field_3_14" class="gfield field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_visible gsurvey-survey-field " data-field-class="gsurvey-survey-field"><label class='gfield_label' >How are we doing?</label><div class='ginput_container gsurvey-rating-wrapper'><div class='gsurvey-rating' id='input_3_14'><input name='input_14' type='radio' value='grating14b1a8022e' id='choice_3_14_0' /><label for='choice_3_14_0' title='Excellent'>Excellent</label><input name='input_14' type='radio' value='grating14d8ea499a' id='choice_3_14_1' /><label for='choice_3_14_1' title='Pretty good'>Pretty good</label><input name='input_14' type='radio' value='grating1492e39b10' id='choice_3_14_2' /><label for='choice_3_14_2' title='Neutral'>Neutral</label><input name='input_14' type='radio' value='grating14bd8359cb' id='choice_3_14_3' /><label for='choice_3_14_3' title='Not so great'>Not so great</label><input name='input_14' type='radio' value='grating146260deba' id='choice_3_14_4' /><label for='choice_3_14_4' title='Terrible'>Terrible</label></div></div></div><div id="field_3_15" class="gfield field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_visible gsurvey-survey-field " data-field-class="gsurvey-survey-field"><label class='gfield_label' for='input_3_15' >Please leave a review of your experience on our website:</label><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_textarea'><textarea name='input_15' id='input_3_15' class='textarea large' aria-invalid="false" rows='10' cols='50'></textarea></div></div><div id="field_3_17" class="gfield field_sublabel_below field_description_below gfield_visibility_visible gsurvey-survey-field " data-field-class="gsurvey-survey-field"><label class='gfield_label' for='input_3_17' >How can we improve?</label><div class='ginput_container ginput_container_textarea'><textarea name='input_17' id='input_3_17' class='textarea large' aria-invalid="false" rows='10' cols='50'></textarea></div></div></div></div> <div class='gform_footer top_label'> <input type='submit' id='gform_submit_button_3' class='gform_button button' value='Submit' onclick='if(window["gf_submitting_3"]){return false;} window["gf_submitting_3"]=true; ' onkeypress='if( event.keyCode == 13 ){ if(window["gf_submitting_3"]){return false;} window["gf_submitting_3"]=true; jQuery("#gform_3").trigger("submit",[true]); }' /> <input type='hidden' name='gform_ajax' value='form_id=3&amp;title=&amp;description=&amp;tabindex=0' /> <input type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' name='is_submit_3' value='1' /> <input type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' name='gform_submit' value='3' /> <input type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' name='gform_unique_id' value='' /> <input type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' name='state_3' value='WyJbXSIsIjA3YTk4ODQ1NmZhZjRkMTQ2Mjg1YTM2ZTAyY2ZhOThjIl0=' /> <input type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' name='gform_target_page_number_3' id='gform_target_page_number_3' value='0' /> <input type='hidden' class='gform_hidden' name='gform_source_page_number_3' id='gform_source_page_number_3' value='1' /> <input type='hidden' name='gform_field_values' value='' /> </div> </form> </div> <iframe style='display:none;width:0px;height:0px;' src='about:blank' name='gform_ajax_frame_3' id='gform_ajax_frame_3' title='This iframe contains the logic required to handle Ajax powered Gravity Forms.'></iframe> <script type='text/javascript'>gform.initializeOnLoaded( function() {gformInitSpinner( 3, 'https://cdn.backyardbeekeeping.iamcountryside.com/wp-content/plugins/gravityforms/images/spinner.svg' );jQuery('#gform_ajax_frame_3').on('load',function(){var contents = jQuery(this).contents().find('*').html();var is_postback = contents.indexOf('GF_AJAX_POSTBACK') >= 0;if(!is_postback){return;}var form_content = jQuery(this).contents().find('#gform_wrapper_3');var is_confirmation = jQuery(this).contents().find('#gform_confirmation_wrapper_3').length > 0;var is_redirect = contents.indexOf('gformRedirect(){') >= 0;var is_form = form_content.length > 0 && ! is_redirect && ! is_confirmation;var mt = parseInt(jQuery('html').css('margin-top'), 10) + parseInt(jQuery('body').css('margin-top'), 10) + 100;if(is_form){jQuery('#gform_wrapper_3').html(form_content.html());if(form_content.hasClass('gform_validation_error')){jQuery('#gform_wrapper_3').addClass('gform_validation_error');} else {jQuery('#gform_wrapper_3').removeClass('gform_validation_error');}setTimeout( function() { /* delay the scroll by 50 milliseconds to fix a bug in chrome */ jQuery(document).scrollTop(jQuery('#gform_wrapper_3').offset().top - mt); }, 50 );if(window['gformInitDatepicker']) {gformInitDatepicker();}if(window['gformInitPriceFields']) {gformInitPriceFields();}var current_page = jQuery('#gform_source_page_number_3').val();gformInitSpinner( 3, 'https://cdn.backyardbeekeeping.iamcountryside.com/wp-content/plugins/gravityforms/images/spinner.svg' );jQuery(document).trigger('gform_page_loaded', [3, current_page]);window['gf_submitting_3'] = false;}else if(!is_redirect){var confirmation_content = jQuery(this).contents().find('.GF_AJAX_POSTBACK').html();if(!confirmation_content){confirmation_content = contents;}setTimeout(function(){jQuery('#gform_wrapper_3').replaceWith(confirmation_content);jQuery(document).scrollTop(jQuery('#gf_3').offset().top - mt);jQuery(document).trigger('gform_confirmation_loaded', [3]);window['gf_submitting_3'] = false;wp.a11y.speak(jQuery('#gform_confirmation_message_3').text());}, 50);}else{jQuery('#gform_3').append(contents);if(window['gformRedirect']) {gformRedirect();}}jQuery(document).trigger('gform_post_render', [3, current_page]);} );} );</script>